Seringkali kita dengar istilah-istilah yang digunakan dlm industri tekstil seperti cotton, polyester, satin, broadcloth, velvet, etc. Tapi pasti ramai yang tidak tahu membezakan kategori istilah-istilah tersebut dan mungkin juga tidak dapat membezakan jenis2nya. Disini saya ‘compile’ kan serba sedikit maklumat yang berkenaan. Tiada alih bahasa ya..:P

TYPES OF FABRICS

Natural fabrics are those which are created from the fibers of animals coats, the cocoons of silkworms, and plants seeds, leaves and stems. It is breathable and never cause rashes apart from being soft and durable. Natural fabric is the best choice for everyone. It does not change color from UV light and there is no warming until the material looses its tensile strength.

Common Natural Fabrics

Cotton Fabric – It is versatile with natural comfort and durability. The use of cotton fabric dates back to 3000 B.C. It is used as garments, home furnishings, and industrial cloths. It is soft with good strength and drapes well.
Cotton Fabric
Silk Fabric
Silk Fabric – If we talk about silk, we talk about softness, beauty and luxuriousness. It is a high grade fabric with weather fabric quality. It is used as expensive dresses and home furnishings. Discovered in China during 2640 B.C. and is still the leading producer in the world.
Wool Fabric – Wool means warmth, softness and strength. It is resistant to wrinkle, dirt and wear and tear. Wool as a clothing was discovered some twelve thousand years ago. Today, it is obtained from sheep, goat, angora goat and angora rabbit and camel.
Wool Fabric
Leather Fabric
Leather Fabric – The fabric which never ages. It is firm, soft, elastic and weather friendly. Commercially it is obtained from cattle, calf, goat, sheep, lamb, horse, pig, kangaroo, deer, reptile, seal, and walrus. The major exporters of goatskin leather in the world are India, China and Pakistan. In sheepskin leather, China, New Zealand, Australia and Iran are the important exporters. USA, Europe, Brazil and USSR are key players in exporting leathers obtained from bovine.
Hemp Fabric – The warmth, softness and durability of hemp fabric is rarely found in any other fabric. It is very versatile with UV protective and insulative quality. It is used as apparel, accessories, shoes, furniture, and home furnishing. It is obtained from stems of plant. The finest comes from Italy and the leading producer is China.
Hemp Fabric
Coir Fabric
Coir Fabric – It is known for its resilience and durable quality. It is the perfect fabric for controlling soil erosion. In horticulture, coir fabric is used as a substitute for peat because it is bacteria free and free from fungal spores. It is an environmental friendly fabric and fully bio-degradable.
Jute Fabric – It is eco-friendly with good strength and durability. It is widely used as bags and sacks. Fashionable cloths, home furnishing and fashion accessories are some of the innovation of jute. India is leading jute manufacturer in the world.
Jute Fabric
Linen Fabric
Linen Fabric – It is the fabric of luxury. Lustrous, beautiful and elegant. It is antibacterial and antifungi with a property of UV protection. It is being used for more than 10,000 years. Egyptians made extensive use of linen. It is obtained from flax plant.
Ramie Fabric – A summer fabric with air-permeability and moisture-absorption quality. It is obtained from ramie plant, a tall shrub grown n South-east Asia. China is the leading producer of ramie followed by Brazil, Korea and Philippines.
Ramie Fabric
Fabric Blends
Fabric Blends– are one which is made up of two or more different types of fibres twisted or spun together. Blending adds to the quality of the final product.

SYNTETIC (MANUFACTURED) FABRICS

The invention of synthetic fabric changed the textile industry. Their properties differed from the properties of natural fabrics. It seamed like miracle. It was made from chemicals and still it was superior to those found in nature. Take an example of rayon, discovered in early 1900s and it became artificial silk.

These fabrics are made from fibers which are either completely made from inorganic materials or organic materials combined with chemicals. Synthetic fabrics have numerous properties with the purpose for which it is produced and finished. Some are lightweight with ultra sheer while others are moisture wicking and fast drying. Few are very luxurious to imitate some other natural fabrics and some are very strong and tough.

Many synthetic fabrics have found their way into trendy fashion garments. These fabrics come in brighter colors and are more economical. In industrial uses, synthetic fabrics have taken its place. They have replaced traditional materials from super-absorbent diapers to artificial organs. Engineered non-woven fabrics are also found in surgical applications like gowns and apparel interfacing.

Man made fibers for fabrics were first experimented in the late 1800s. Du Pont, a chemist, discovered laboratory-synthesized fiber, nylon. He transformed common materials like coal, air, and water into fibers whose qualities were far better than natural fibers.

Types of Synthetic Fabrics

Acetate Fabric – It is an imitation of silk and can withstand mildew, pilling and shrinking.

Acetate Fabric
Acrylic Fabric

Acrylic Fabric – It is an imitation of wool and is resistant to wearing, wrinkling, soiling, and fading.

Nylon Fabric – It is the strongest upholstery fabric and it does not soil, or wrinkle.

Nylon Fabric
Latex Fabric

Latex Fabric – It has high waterproofing and dry cleaning property. It is resistant to heat and light.

Polyester Fabric – It is used for upholstery and is blended with other fibers to add wrinkle resistant. It eliminates crushing of napped fabrics and reduce fading.
Polyester Fabric
Rayon Fabric

Rayon Fabric – It imitates silk, linen, and cotton and is durabl

Spandex Fabric – It is known for its shape retention quality and is resistant to dry heat and oil. It is lightweight with comfort and flexibility.
Spandex Fabric

FABRIC DESIGNS

The designs created on the fabric plays an important part in making the fabric more beautiful and more fashionable. It reflects the craftsmanship as well as the customs or culture of the wearer. It varies from small geometrical patterns to pictured designs. Sometimes it is also designed with religious figures for religious purposes.

Fabric design is one of the oldest and most functional forms of decorative art. It dates back to 3000 B.C. People in ancient world wore patterned cloth. In the beginning, patterned cloths were manufactured by hand. In 1712, George Leason founded automated cotton printing works in Boston.

Types of Fabric Design

Batik Fabric – It is a method of dyeing fabric where wax or glue paste is used cover those areas on the fabric which is to be undyed. Later on the wax is taken off by boiling.

Batik
Dyed Fabric

Dyed Fabric – In this process the fabric is dyed with a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to the fabric it is applied to.

Embroidered Fabric – Ornamental needlework is applied to the fabric creating patterns.

Embroidered Fabric
Printed Fabric

Printed Fabric – This is a fabric on which a pattern is printed with an ink or dye.

Painted Fabric – A fabric on which designs or patterns are painted by hand.
Painted Fabric

FABRIC TEXTURES

Fabric texture is the feel of the fabric. It can be smooth, rough, soft, velvetty, silky, lustrous, and so on. The different textures of the fabric depends upon the type of weaves.

The type of texture sets the mood of the wearer. Rough textured fabrics say “picnics,” where as soft textured fabrics whisper for “formal dinners.” Cotton damask, toile having sheer linen and silk cloth, chints, and soft chenille speak of formal and traditional spaces.

Textures are given to all types of fabrics, cotton, silk, wool, leather, and also to linen. Few of the famous fabric textures are flannel, velvet, organdy, chintz, crepe, damask, challis, venise, suede and embossed leather.

Types of Fabric Textures

Cotton Fabric Textures – Fabrics made of cotton have a cool, soft and comfortable feel. The cotton fabrics can be given a glazed or patterned finish to give it a smooth feel. The texture of the cotton fabrics make them very durable, resists stain and are not prone to wrinkling.
Cotton Fabric Texture
Silk Fabric Textures
Silk Fabric Textures – The fabric made of silk will have a soft and smooth feel to it. The various textures of silk fabrics can range between slightly crinkled texture, Crepe like texture, natural colored textured silk, Lustrous shine with crepey texture and many more.

Wool Fabric Textures – Wool fabrics can come in various finishes or textures. The fabrics can range between fuzzy or hard textures or interwoven with sliver dyed multi color yarns which give the fabric a lustrous finish.

Wool Fabric Textures
Linen Fabric Textures

Linen Fabric Textures – Linen texture is moving towards a new direction with various fresh and elegant finishes given to the fabrics. Bolder textures are more in demand and beautifully finished linen fabric is used in a variety of places nowadys.

Leather Fabric Textures – Leather is an elegant and expensive fabric and the textures such as black leather, sky blue finish,White, Cracks etc make each and every fabric unique and fashionable items. Due to their shiny and polished look they are highly demanded fabrics.
Painted Fabric

FABRIC WEAVES

Fabric weave is the pattern of weave or structure given to the fabric. It is an ancient textile art and craft, which places two, threads or yarn onto a warp and weft of a loom to produce a cloth. The woven cloth can be plain, in single color or in a simple pattern, or it may be woven in decorative or artistic designs.

Fabrics are woven on jacquard looms or dobby looms. The simple weave is usually done on a dobby looms where as the complicated patterns are done on the jacquard looms. The weave on the jacquard looms is controlled by a computer. Jacquard looms are more popular and more economical. It weaves fast and in bulk.

Types of Fabric Weaves

Plain Weave – Each filling yarn passes over and under each warp yarn with each row alternating.
Plain Weave
Satin Weave
Satin Weave – The face of the fabric consists only the warp or the weft threads, giving the fabric a very smooth and lustrous surface.
Twill Weave – It is similar to plain weave. In this the warp yarns skip at regular predetermined intervals creating a diagonal rib in the weave.
Twill Weave
Basket Weave

Basket Weave – Two or more warp yarns cross alternately side-by-side with two or more filling yarns. It resembles a plaited basket.

Jacquard Weave – Fabrics woven on a Jacquard loom.
Jacquard Weave
Rib Weave
Rib Weave – It is a plain weave type formed with heavy yarns in the warp or the filling direction.
Dobby Weave – It is a decorative weave, which is characterised by small designs or geometric figures being woven in the fabric structure.
Dobby Weave
Leno Weave
Leno Weave – In this the warp yarns are arranged in pairs. One yarn being twisted around the other between picks of the filling yarn.
Oxford Weave – A group of fabrics made with modified plain weave or basket weave. Usually made for shirting materials.
Oxford Weave
Cut Pile
Uncut Pile – This is a pile of carpet consisting of loops.
UnCut Pile
Double Knit
Double Knit – This is a type of circular knit fabric of double thickness..
Chenile Fabric – A soft wool, silk, cotton, or rayon yarn with protruding pile.
Linen Fabric

FABRIC FINISH

Fabric finish is an important factor. It is done according to the need and purpose of the fabric. With the type of finish, fabric enhances its quality. The fabric gets additional properties with the finish. The following are few of the characteristics of fabric finish.

  • It becomes smoother.
  • It becomes wrinkle free.
  • It can speed moisture evaporation.
  • It becomes flame retardant.
  • It becomes soft.
  • It adds body to fabric without adding stiffness.

TYPES OF FABRIC FINISH

Coated Farbic – It is formed by coating agents to the sides of the fabric. The fabric gains good stability of viscosity and becomes stronger, washable and flame retardant.
Coated Fabric
Felted Fabric

Felted Fabric – It is produced by matting, condensing and pressing together animal fibers. The treated fabric becomes thick sheet of cloth.

Handmade Fabric – It is woven on a loom using vertical warps and horizontal wefts. Handmade fabric does not shrinks much.

Handmade Fabric
Knitted Fabric

Knitted Fabric – Knitting is making clothes out of thread or yarn. It is either done by hand or by machine.

Non-Woven Fabric – It is produced by interlocking layers of fibers or filament mechanically, thermally or chemically. It mimics the features of woven fabric.

Non-Woven Fabric
Stiched Fabric

Stitched Fabric – It has a permeability property of its interbundle channels, though the stich size is relatively small.

Woven Fabric – It is created by the interlaching of warp and weft fibers in a regular pattern. There are different types of weave style.
Woven Fabric
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